Tangible and Untangible Elements
The Travel Book: A Journey Through Every Country in the World (Lonely Planet)
1. It is defined that tourism service is made up of tangible and intangible elements. Tangible services in tourism appeal to historical and natural values. Infrastructure and superstructure are also tangible, which shall be defined later.
Tangible services may require meeting certain minimum standards, be evaluated and calculated. On the other hand, intangible services cannot be measured or evaluated. It is stated that intangible factors give tourist elements the life, enjoyment and shine. They unite together with its friendliness and warmth to maintain the environment of the location. The welcoming approach it delivers is not measurable.
Contentment cannot be guaranteed through tangible factors, no matter how good they are. It is stated that it hugely depends on the location, how the tourists will react and feel towards it. Every experience and event tourists pass through need to be synchronized, for the pleasure and wellness.
It states that it all depends on the togetherness and closeness of people, for the approval of the entire product. It further adds, sometimes transport is required to reach a destination, and that is considered as a product. Other times, transportation is not available, but still it is casted as tourism.
2. The definition of tourism product is total physical and psychological pleasure, given to the tourists whilst travelling to their destination. It is stated that the tourist product concentrates on the services and facilities made for the needs of the tourists. (Bieap.gov.in>pdf>)
Tourism product is produced by services, facilities and attractions used or visited whilst on stay. Tourism product can also be defined as, what the tourists experience and what is happening at the time. (The Tourism Products & Services)
The category of tourism product falls into two areas. Firstly, resources that cannot already be produced, or attached. For example, historic, natural or cultural. Secondly, elements that can be copied, are in existence, further changes have made or made better. It is stated that climate and natural attractions, such as mountains or picturesque lakes, cannot be changed or duplicated. (The Tourism Products & Services)
Many examples of the historical characteristics and culture which cannot be reproduced, for example, as it is stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), ‘Mona Lisa’ by Leonardo da Vinci, Notre Dame, the Palace of Versailles and the Balzac’s House in France is already in existence. These cannot be replaced or copied, as they can only be offered by France. France has many more attractions which possess cultural and historical importance. It also states that, it is not possible to make duplicates of structures like the Angkor Wat in Cambodia, Taj Mahal in India or Borobudur in Indonesia. Naturally infrastructure of tourism and its superstructure can be progressed.
3. Tourism infrastructure is the foundation that makes the superstructure. The definition of tourism infrastructure comprises of drainage, sewerage system, water supply, airports, electricity and roads. It states in (Panasiuk A.,2007), that tourism infrastructure is a variety of products and centres comprising material and organizational foundation for tourism development. It is made up of four basic components: accommodation facilities, accompanying facilities, food and beverage facilities and communication facilities.
The definition of superstructure as stated on the (internet), is a structure built on top of something else. It’s a part of a building above its foundation. Basically, the foundation here is referring to tourism infrastructure. As stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), superstructure is made up of a complete range of tourist systems and facilities, such as hotels, restaurants and accommodation units.
4. Before, defining cluster concept in tourism, I will give a brief definition of cluster. As stated in (MOVE IT EMAS easy!), according to C. Ketel’s, a cluster is “a group of companies and institutions co-located in a particular geographic area and associated by interdependencies in supplying a linked group of services and or products”. It also states that, due to the closeness of geography and activities, cluster members are motivated by different kinds of externalities, particularly to their area. For example, having access to specialise in labour markets and suppliers, and the pressure to reach high economic performance, due to the competitiveness. It is also stated that clusters share four critical characteristics, which are:
• Proximity: companies are required to be adequately near in space to permit any affirmative spill-overs and to share common resources when occurred.
• Linkages: to gain profit from proximity and interaction, they require to share final market demand.
• Interactions: a level of active interaction must be present, to take positive cluster in effect.
• Critical mass: adequate sum of participants is required to gain significant contact on companies’ actions.
The cluster concept as stated in (The Tourism Products & Services), that any kind of destination with tourism potential will integrate in a “cohesive geo-spatial framework”, an outstanding scope and variety of equivalent tourism benefits. It is also stated that the destination will determine the exact type of attractions, resources and services close to proximity of one another. There is the core product as well as the optional or marginal product.
The main product consists of suitable kinds of accommodations, tourist attractions, recreational services and places to eat. The marginal products join to this by supplying other tourist attractions in a form of incompatible beautiful natural scenery, entertainment, amusement, leisure, shopping, and recreational conferences. It is stated that, an immaculate destination is symbolized by a mixture of all the above elements.
5. Before explaining what are resort complexes, I shall give the definition of resort. It is stated in (Wikipedia) that the phrase resort could be applied for a hotel property that supplies a range of facilities, usually containing recreational and entertainment activities. Moreover, some resorts are condominium complexes which are timeshare or owned by a fraction or a whole condominium. (Wikipedia)
Tourism groups are established by carefully considered incorporated resort buildings. It is stated that, the visitors are placed in one location, they reduce the infrastructural requirements, and various accommodation units and hotels are made easier, and put together in an orderly manner. The right assistance, similar services and amenities are balanced out through this process. If a
building needs sufficient quantity of land, it requires to be bought at a moderate price, due to certain lands being of moderately short density organisations. (The Tourism Product and Services)
From a business perspective resorts of these kinds represent a highly ranked merchandise. They supply a good lay-out, and are properly arranged with an attractive neighbouring scenery. It is stated that the governments might form institutional companies at the beginning of this task, by organising this type of activity.
It is stated that the government may already own the land, or maybe get it for the required institutions. Companies take over the land, then they master a scheme, borrow money to create the needed infrastructure, and inspire local and foreign investors to form the required subordinate institution. (The Tourism Products and Services)
It is narrated that all-comprehensive resorts of this sort, are saleable and attractive. The likelihood of disturbance caused by more scattered types of tourism, can be prevented by focussing on the set locations. An example of certain resorts are, Nusa Dua in Bali, and Cancun in Mexico. (The Tourism Products and Services)
The Tourism Products & Services, Unit-2
Panasiuk A, 200