Ever wondered why shepherd’s pie is called “Shepherd’s Pie”?

As I was preparing shepherd’s pie for an evening meal, my mind began to wonder, why is shepherd’s pie called “shepherd’s pie”?

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According to Wikipedia, shepherd’s pie is a meat pie, with a crust or topping of mashed potato. I used chicken mince for my recipe, and not the beef mince.
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Cooked chicken mince with jalapenos

It narrates in Wikipedia, the dish was originated in United Kingdom and Ireland. The main ingredients of the recipe are mashed potato crust and meat filling.

Mozzarella cheese is layered top of the cooked chicken mince.

Grated cheese layered on top of filling

Wikipedia also states, the recipe has many alterations, however, defined ingredients are minced red meat, (usually, the lamb is used for ‘cottage pie’, and beef for ‘shepherds pie), cooked in gravy or sauce with onions and occasionally with vegetables, then topped with mashed potato and finally baked. Some use grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.

Mashed potato ready to be layered on top of mince and cheese

I prepared the mashed potato, adding a hint of salt and black pepper for extra taste.

The cook books of earlier times, as stated in Wikipedia described the recipe as a method of utilizing leftover cooked meat of any type, with the sides and bottom of dish covered with mashed potato, aswell as the top.

Mashed potato layered on top of cooked mince and cheese

Whilst spreading the mashed potato oil from the mince mixed into it. At the time, it looked stained and quite unpleasant. However, surprisingly after the shepherd’s pie was cooked, I was overwhelmed by golden and crispy effect.

Baked shepherd’s pie ready to be eaten
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Shepherd’s pie served with coleslaw, beans and salad



Memorable PICS of my vacation to PAKISTAN! A visit to Rohtas Fort….

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View of the nearby mosques from 2nd level terrace of Rohatas Fort.

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Mesmerising view of defensive walls from the bastion at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up view of thick defensive walls from the bastion of Rohtas Fort.

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View from 3rd level terrace each attached by the staircase at Rohtas Fort. The abandoned mosque is situated in middle of grass field.

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Another outstanding view of the defensive walls at Rohtas Fort, edging with scenic hills.

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The Haveli and remaining mansion of Man Singh at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up of Man Singh’s remaining mansion at Rohtas Fort. A rickshaw can be seen parked near the staircase. Tourists visit only room left of the remaining mansion.

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The 16th century coins of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, at Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre, Rohtas Fort museum.

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The shields of (British period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords and helmet of (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords of the (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statues of Emperor Sher Sha Suri with his guards at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statue of the wife (seated) of Sher Sha Suri at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre/Museum Rohtas Fort.

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View of the Akbar Khan visitors Information Centre/ museum from 1st level terrace of Rohtas Fort.

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Sher Shah Suri constructed Rohtas Fort to block Emperor Humayun’s return from India after defeating him in the battle of Kanouj. (Wikipedia)

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Viewing the 3 levels of terrace each attached by a staircase. The outer walls of bastion, give a lighter shade through the reflection of sun.

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Yet another stunning view of Rohtas Fort, from above the grassfields and below the shining sun. The fresh breeze and clear skies, with a hint of small clouds overlooking the hills far away.

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The rays of shining sun above the grassfield and bastion fortifying the thick walls at Rohtas Fort.




Passengers report extreme fear after ‘loud bang’ on rear of Etihad Airways from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi

A terrified passenger described the ordeal to Manchester Evening: “We were going into the air and i thought ‘this is it”.

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Following the incident on Monday night, passengers criticised Etihad Airways for insufficient interaction.

The flight from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi was compelled to return back, after a ‘loud bang’ at rear of the plane terrified passengers, and cabin being engulfed with smoke.

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Due to technical fault, Etihad Airways Flight EY22, returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off.

Passengers stated the “loud bang” was heard just before take-off, from the back of the plane.

The plane was in air for approximately 30 minutes, engulfing in smoke before the pilot returned back to Manchester Airport.

The ‘cabin pressurization system’ had a technical fault, according to Etihad Airways spokesperson.

On Tuesday morning passengers were placed on a rescheduled flight, after staying the night in a hotel.

Few passengers criticised Etihad bosses for the “shortness of communication” after the incident.

A passenger travelling to meet his friends in Thailand, Gary McVey, 47, stated: “The plane was on the runway and then there was an explosion”.

He continued: “We were stuck in air for 25 to 30 minutes. It was quite a heavy landing. We were kept on the runway for about an hour”.

Gary who is from Cheshire, stated further: “People were screaming for the plane to stop. Then when we were going into the air, I thought ‘well here we go, this is it’.

He continued: “There is a woman with a five month old baby, she has not been offered any assistance formula or water”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)

Another passenger, Priyanka Mohanan, 33, from Macclesfield, stated: “As soon as the flight took off, there was a bang sound. Passengers started shouting ‘stop the flight’. I looked back and there was alot of smoke.

“By that time, we had already taken off into the air. There were no casualties or anything, but there was alot of smoke.

“As soon as we landed the firebrigade was there.

“I am visiting family in Mumbai, I was supposed to attend a wedding and have missed one day already”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)

Etihad Airways’s spokesperson stated: “Etihad Airways confirms that flight EY22, Manchester to Abu Dhabi on 14 January returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off, due to a technical issue associated with the cabin pressurization system.

“The aircraft landed safely and passengers disembarked and were offered hotel accommodation including meals. Guests were updated throughout the disruption and were re-booked onto alternative flights on January 15.

“We regret any inconvenience caused. The safety of our guests and crew is always our number one priority”. (www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk)


Where does Pilau rice originate from?

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According to Wikipedia, pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, and the technique of cooking it, to some extent is of West Asian origin and partially South Asian. The rice is cooked in stock, with spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat and dried fruit. Some ingredients can be mixed after cooking, if need to maintain single grains seperate from clumping.

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Pilaf or pilau is a main course dish, originated from West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Balkans, East Africa and the Caribean. The rice is served hot, and its main ingredients are: rice, spices, meat, vegetables and dried fruits.

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It mentions in Wikipedia that the ancient Hindu text Mahabharata, from the Indian Subcontinent states, rice and meat are cooked together, and “pollao” or “pulao” is a word referring to the dish in ancient Sanskrit works, for example the Yajnavalkya Smrti.

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Alexandra the Great was served pilaf at the royal banquet, after his capture of Sogdian capital of Marakanda, now known as the modern Samarkand.

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The tenth-century Persian scholar Avicena (ibn Sina), discovered the receipe of pilaf, and devoted a chapter on how to make various pilafs, in his books of medical sciences. He also gave explanations on the benefits and downsides of each ingredient used in preparing the dishes. It also states in Wikipedia, Persians believe Ibn Sina is the “father” of current pilaf.

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In the Middle East and Transcaucasia pilau became quality food over the years with alterations and changes made by the Persians, Turks, Arabs and Armenians. Bukharan and Persian Jews introduced it to Isreal.

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Throughout the time of Soviet Union, the Central Asian types of the dish mushroomed throughout all Soviet republics, that it grew part of the popular Soviet Cuisine.

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Pilot discloses when to worry about plane turbulence!

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For many passengers flights and how the planes function is an enigma, and having to put trust in the pilots capacity. Fliers are frequently worried about turbulence. It can differ from mild interruption to being violently shook to your seat. It is prompted by divergent masses of air striking at inconsistent speeds and courses. However, how concerned should the passengers be? Does it actually signify terrible news at any one point?

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“Turbulence” as a matter of fact should certainly not worry the passengers, disclosed the pilot to Express.

The pilot quoted: “In all honesty, passengers should never worry about turbulence”. (Express.co.uk)

“The aircraft is designed to take the stress and strain of turbulence. For example, it’s like designing a car with good enough suspension to drive over a rough surface road with potholes”. (Express.co.uk)

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Speaking in small terms, pilots are not concerned about turbulence – sidestepping it for benefit and ease rather than safety.

Pilots can predict where turbulence is and steer free from it, in the best conditions.

The pilot also stated, “we use met data and forecasts for jet streams to avoid potential areas”. (Express.co.uk)

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Patrick Smith the airline pilot, described in his book “Cockpit Confidential”: “A plane cannot be flipped upside down, thrown into a tailspin or otherwise flung from the sky by even the mightiest gust or air pocket”.

“Conditions might be annoying and uncomfortable, but the plane is not going to crash”. He added. (Express.co.uk)

Turbulence is ranked on a range of seriousness: light, moderate, severe and extreme.

It is stated, extreme is infrequent but yet not hazardous, however the plane would later be investigated by the maintenance workers.

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Each year, worldwide, approximately one hundred people, half of them flight crew, are injured by turbulence that requires medical attention. The most frequent injuries are; head, neck, ankle and shoulder.

The majority of injuries are occurred when passengers are not wearing seat belts during a turbulence, causing them to fall out or be thrown about. It is important to follow the orders of the crew and wear a seatbelt during turbulence.

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Smith stated: “If you want to limit the effects of turbulence the smoothest place to sit is over the wings, as it’s “nearest to the plane’s centre of lift and gravity”. He also said: “Steer clear of the rows of seats at the back closest to the tail as “the knocking and swaying is more pronounced”. 



“Global Sale” Etihad adds more European Countries. Business Class fares before Amex Discount from €1849

According to Points to be Made, a few days ago Etihad initiated their “Global Sale in the UK, Ireland, Germany and Australia”. There are more countries nearby Continental Europe that have introduced their separate operations, from 12 January 2019.

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The departure places now comprise of:

  • The Netherlands: Amsterdam
  • Spain: Madrid, Barcelona
  • Italy: Milan, Rome
  • France: Paris
  • Switzerland: Geneva, Zurich

The above deals can be found on below website, ending 25 January 2019.


From the obtainable fares Spain happens to have the cheapest from €1849 (before discount) from Madrid/Barcelona to Kuala Lumpar, proceeded closely by Italy and The Netherlands.

If you pay by American Express a discount of 10% applies. You can activate the offer from the link below.


To activate this discount, you must follow the instructions on how the discount works from the link below:

The discount fare applies to base fare (non-tax component) and taxes of about €430 on Spanish fares, with an expected discount of €140, resulting to an overall payment of €1710 per person. Italy has the lowest taxes in the EU with a potential of high savings, however, it balances off moderately by elevated base fares.



Data fed into GDS through “aggregator services”

The following are aggregator services:

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ATPCO (Airline Tariff Publishing Company) – it maintains a vast fares database for over 500 airlines. Data is updated several times a day and fed into the GDS’s and other travel distribution channels.

OAG (Official Airline Guide) – is a travel data service provider, which publishes electronic data-base daily, and with flight schedules of over 1,000 airlines.

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INNOVATA – Innovata is a flight schedules aggregator and data service provider. It works with IATA and maintains a schedules database for about 900 airlines.


Sabre Ticketing course by Viasinc

Introduction to Sabre GDS (Global Distribution System)

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What is a GDS?

A GDS (Global Distribution System) is a worldwide distribution network, giving travel agents the ability to book more or less any travel items throughout the world. Sabre is a GDS, used by travel agents to research travel options, check prices and book reservations for every types of travel services, from airline flights, rental cars, to hotel rooms.

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  1. Sabre is amongst the popular GDS’s used around the world. Computer’s, IT and telecom play an important role in the travel industry. Independent travel companies use complex Computerised Reservation Systems (CRS), to control their inventory with telecom connecting their systems to different computers throughout the globe.
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A GDS is comparable to a CRS, but used mainly for sales and issuing. It keeps statistics for thousands of different travel suppliers permitting travel experts to compare prices and services amongst sellers.

Reservations made by Sabre GDS, get transmitted to and kept in the travel agent’s computer system CRS.

For instance, when GDS is used to book a flight on British Airways, the reservation’s data is sent to airline’s private CRS. In few cases, the airline’s private CRS is GDS’s Sub-system, but the information is stored separately.

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The travel agent is allowed to work on and modify a booking, through the local copy of reservation kept in Sabre.

The airline’s and Sabre copy of the booking are linked, allowing each other to be notified of any changes being made, such as cancelling a flight or confirming a special request.

Amongst the strengths of a GDS, is it contains majority of travel-related data. Some of this data comes from the travel company’s own computer system CRS.

The GDS receives other data through aggregator services, such as ATPCO, OAG and INNOVATA. This shall be explained in the next blog.


Sabre Ticketing, online course by Viasinc.

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Cabin crew of Pakistan International Airlines must lose weight!

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According to Independent, cabin crew of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) have been informed to lose weight, or resist being grounded.

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From 31 January any cabin crew of PIA who weighs more than 30lbs (2st 2lbs) beyond the weight limit shall be prohibited from flying. A memo was distributed to approximately 1,800 employees.

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According to CNN stated in Independent, the excess weight limit will be reduced to 5lbs a month.

The memo expressed:

“Any crew found above 30lbs from the desired weight after 31 January 2019 will be grounded and referred to Air Crew Medical Centre for medical evaluation and treatment until weight is reduced up to desired standard/BMI.” (http://www.independent.co.uk)

Diagrams have been distributed by the airline, commanding acceptable crew weight based on height. For instance, females with a height of 5ft 7in are given a weight span of 133-147lbs (9st 7lbs-10st).

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Crew that are currently on “weight test” will require reporting to a monthly “grooming cell” before they are given permission to fly.

According to PIA spokesperson, 5 per cent of the staff will be affected by the new rules.

The CNN were told that, “nobody would like to have scruffy crew on the aircraft”, adding, that the crackdown was a “regular, routine matter” ensuring crew are “slim, smart and fit”.

It’s been over a year of receiving complaints about “obese” flight crew, the airline claimed. PIA also stated, reducing the weight is about both appearance and health of staff.

Threatened job losses of flight attendants not meeting the standard targets of dictated weight, is not occurring the first time, stated the airline. Air India, grounded approximately 130 of its “mainly women” cabin crew, in 2015, due to being “overweight”.

Pakistan International Airlines stated the resolution was based on safety matters and government laws, whilst the critics marked the act “ridiculous”.

Aviation industry consultant Mark Martin at the time said: as quoted in (Independent.co.uk)

This move to impose a certain BMI, ignoring experience and other performance parameters, is immature, misogynistic and shockingly sexiest”. He also added: “We seem to have lost the plot on what is needed from flight attendants”.

An airline official said: as quoted in (Independent.co.uk)

People who are fitter can respond quicker and more efficiently in case of any untoward situation”.



People will be charged by Customs for taking an additional mobile phone to Pakistan

According to Samaa the government of Pakistan, is charging a remarkably soar duty on mobile phones brought in to Pakistan.

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This applies to everyone from profit-oriented importers to passengers travelling to Pakistan. All expatriates coming to Pakistan, or a Pakistani returning from an official trip abroad must pay the duty if carrying extra mobile phones.

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Tax will not be payable by people carrying only one smartphone. However, people holding extra mobile phones would have to pay tax on them. Furthermore, it is not permissable to carry more than five headsets a year.

The structure of duty/tax is complicated, as stated in Samaa. However, some calculations have been done as following: If an additional mobile phone is valued at RS40,000, then a tax and other duties of RS16,100 or 40% would have to be paid, leading to an overall cost to RS56,100. Depending on the price of the handset, duty and tax will vary. The below diagram taken from (http://www.samaa.tv) shows how much to pay for the smartphone:

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Diagram from http://www.samaa.tv

Officials stated, duties will apply to both smartphones, new (packed) or used (unpacked) with an IMEI or SIM function. However, currently the government is allowing only used phones and new (packed) phones – in case of a second phone – is being charged with new Customs duty. Duties have already been confirmed by the government for used phones, and legislation is being made in regards to this.

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Critics have stated, both consumers and traders will be upset by the soaring duties on imports of handsets. With these higher duties, devices will become more expensive and “out of reach for the marginalised parts, being deprived from the advantages of what internet offers”. They also stated, it will slow down internet penetration and the expansion of internet-based economy.

To stop the smuggling of mobile phones, which cost the exchequer millions in tax evasion, it is neccessary to take this step, stated the government.

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The government is working to simplify the complicated old tax framework, a Customs Official stated. The aim is to initially halt smuggling, since 40% of the imports are smuggled items, he (annonymous) clarified. Furthermore, according to Samaa, he also stated: “Once, we have done away with it and simplified the tax structure, the goverment will certainly consider reducing taxes, especially on low-end phones.” (www.samaa.tv)




According to a survey, Ryanair was called the worst short-haul airline for 6 consecutive years

The Evening Standard stated Dublin based carrier was given the lowest ranking possible for boarding, cabin surrounding, seat comfort and refreshments, shown in a survey by the consumer group Which?.

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The overall customer result was just 40% due to this.

More than 70% of people stated they would never travel on Ryanair.

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A record of 12,459 flying experiences from 7,901 of its members showed in Which?.

The Civil Aviation Authority started enforcement movement against Ryanair in December, under the decision of not paying compensation for flight disturbance occurring from industrial action by its crew in summer 2018.

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Last year the airline also experienced disapproval of altering the hand luggage policy twice, with consequences in charges for travellers flying with little wheelie suitcases.

A passenger stated to Which?, there are numerous rules and is afraid of coming across concealed charges.

Ryanair made £1.75 billion last year from additional costs, such as luggage fees, assigned seating and priority boarding, emphasized the consumer group.

Other airlines that ranked at the lowest for short-haul flights were “Thomas Cook Airlines (52%), Whizz Air (54%), Vueling Airlines (54%) and British Airways (56%)”.

Centre of the ranking was easyJet at 63%.

The airlines achieving the highest position for short-haul travel, were Aurigny (81%), Swiss Airlines (80%) and Jet2 (75%).

The “one vital factor for UK customers is the cost of fares” which the research did not consider, stated a spokeswoman of Ryanair and explained it as “completely unrepresentative” in comparison to 141 million travellers yearly.

The spokeswoman also stated the airline’s standard fare of £35 is “a fraction of the costly fares charged by Which?’s “suggested” airlines”.


The Which? Travel magazine’s editor, Rory Boland said, if you don’t desire to be seated with family and children or nor take the smallest cabin bag on-board, then airfares seem a lot cheaper.

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He also stated, with Ryanair a calculator is required to figure out what the final bill would be.

Furthermore, he said, hundreds of thousands of holidays were destroyed due to cancelling flights in the last two years, and defying the rules on compensation too”.

Finally, the editor stated: “The results of our survey show passengers are fed up. They should switch to one of their rivals, who prove budget prices don’t have to mean budget services”. (www.standard.co.uk)


Evening Standard (www.standard .co.uk)

Gatwick and Heathrow to buy Anti-drone equipement

Following the disturbance at Sussex airport prior to christmas, Gatwick and Heathrow will pay millions of pounds on anti-drone technology.

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Last month at Gatwick the RAF placed equipment on a roof, that identifies and blocks communications between a drone and its operator.

Due to drone sightings in December, over 1,000 flights were cancelled in a span of 3 days.

Gatwick spent a total of £5 million to prohibit later assaults, whilst Heathrow confirmed to also purchase the systems.

Between 19th and 21st December, more than 140,000 traveller’s were disturbed during the 36 hour havoc.

The government brought in the military and was only stood down on Wednesday 2nd January.

The personnel of Royal Air Force Regiment were associated in the deployment, said the Ministry of Defence (MoD).

It was reported last year, that MoD requested the Drone Dome system, which is manufactured by Rafeal an Israeli company.

The system has a scope of several miles and consumes four radars to provide 360-degrees detection to recognise and trail drones.

It is assumed MoD is yet waiting to obtain the system, because Gatwick used substituted technology.

It is stated that Gatwick and Heathrow have not revealed the equipment they intend to operate in future.

After the disturbance Gatwick invested in new anti-drone defences, confirmed a spokeswoman.

At Heathrow, a spokesman stated:

“The safety of our passengers and colleagues remains our top priority.

Working closely with relevant authorities including the Met Police, we are constantly looking at the best technologies that help remove the threat of drones.” (BBC News)

Investigation of the disturbance is still ongoing by Sussex Police, and stated it occurred by “many occasions of illegal drone activity”.

The force stated it had “appropriate viewing” from 115 witnesses – 93 of them explained as “believable” – including police officers, a pilot and airport staff.

According to Civil Aviation Authority, rules for flying recreational drones in the UK are:

  1. Drone must be in line of sight at all times
  2. Not within 50m of people, vehicles or buildings
  3. No higher than 120m (400ft)



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Package Holidays

Package Holidays


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A holiday sold for an individual price that consists of travel, accommodation and transfer services, is defined as a package holiday. In the United Kingdom travel and tourism industry, package holiday is one of the most important products. It has been about 50 years since they started offering package holidays, and have grown to be tremendously popular.

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A traveller pays a single price for the major three parts of their holiday (travel, accommodations and transfer). The flight is covered in the package, and if it’s an outbound holiday, it will also include transfer from the airport to the hotel, and cost of accommodations. Food being obtainable depends whether the passenger is self-catering or not. Certain activities while on holiday, like small trips and visits to attractions must be paid at the airport, by person booking the package.

Before the existence of internet, it was complicated for normal people to make reservations with hotels in different countries. It was also difficult to make other arrangements.

A holiday offer with everything included was extremely appealing, particularly to a place with guaranteed warm weather.

A tour operator puts together package holidays, sold to the public by travel agents. The travel representatives promote the holidays issued by tour operators in brochures, for the public to select their desired holiday.

Although, the ‘established’ method of selling package holidays still occurs, majority of people are now using the internet to purchase their holiday.

Currently, tour operators sell their products straight to the public.

Every package holidays are not only sold to coastal destinations, rather they can be purchased for city breaks, winter sports holidays and many other types. The valued feature is that the holiday has been ‘packaged’ or put together by the tour operator, agreeing to buy seats on an aircraft or beds in a hotel. Traveller’s buying single products are more expensive, in comparison to package price which is often cheaper.


Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Over 50 employees of Pakistan International Airlines sacked for forged degrees

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The media announced on Saturday that over 50 employees of Pakistan International Airlines, including pilots and cabin crew were sacked, for carrying forged degrees.

According to Geo news, stated in India Today, three pilots and 50 cabin crew were fired.

A statement by the country’s national carrier, commented that the staff were sacked in a forged degrees case, on the command of Supreme Court.

In January this year Chief Justice Saqib Nisar, took notice of the supposed position of pilots carrying counterfeit qualifications.

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The Chief Justice leader of a two-member tribunal had issued a time limit of December 28 to the Civil Aviation Authority, for finishing the authentication of the degrees of pilots.



Etihad Airways takes Dreamliner 787-9, route to Hong Kong

From March 31st Etihad Airways is going to introduce the Dreamliner Boeing 787-9, from Abu Dhabi to Hong Kong on a daily scheduled service.

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The aircraft Airbus A330-200 is flying the route currently, however, it shall be replaced with the two class aircraft.

The airline’s next generation business and economy cabins, comprising of 229 seats, will highlight the new Airbus 787-9 Dreamliner service to Hong Kong.

This comprises an expansion of 6 business class seats, 31 economy class seats and raised capacity of four tonnes in the belly-hold freight.

The modern inflight entertainment network presents over 750 hours of movies and programmes, in the new Boeing 787 fleet. The Dreamliner also has an option of games for both adults and children, aswell as hundreds of music selections.





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Following the drone turmoil France’s Vinci bought Gatwick Airport for £2.9 billion

Days after reports of drone sightings and closure of Gatwick Airport runways, causing disturbance to thousands of passengers, has been sold to France’s Vinci for £2.9 billion.

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Under the conditions of agreement, the Global Infrastructer Partners (GIP), a consortium regulated by US investment fund will sell a share of 50.01% to Vinci Airports.

Gatwick the UK’s second largest airport struck an agreement, with Vinci who manages beyond 40 airports globally over America, Europe and Asia.

The Sussex airport was enormously interrupted in the run-up to christmas, after news of drone spotting created chaos for christmas travellers.

Last week after the drones were sighted inside the airport perimeter, about 1,000 Gatwick flights were discontinued or transfered across three days.

The pre-Christmas travel arrangements of many thousands of people, were destroyed by the emergency.

Although, there were subsequent implications that the drones at Gatwick may never have existed, the Evening Standard states, “although police later played them down, saying they were down to “poor communications”. (Standard.co.uk)

The GIP partner, Michael Mcghee, stated:

“We expect the transaction to be completed by the middle of next year, with the senior leadership team remaining in place.

“There focus, along with everyone at Gatwick, obviously remains on doing their very best for customers over the busy holiday period after the challenges of recent days”. (Quote, from standard.co.uk)

In 2009, Gatwick was obtained for £1.5 billion by the GIP consortium.

Sir David Higgins the chairman, Stewart Wingate the chief exec and Nick Dunn the finance chief, will remain in their positions, along with the senior management team at Gatwick subsequent to the contract.

The GIP shall persist to administer the outstanding 49.99% interest in Gatwick, after the closure of the transaction in the second quarter.

President of Vinci Airports, Nicolas Notebaert, said:

“As Gatwick’s new industrial partner, Vinci Airports will support and encourage growth of traffic, operational efficiency and leverage its international expertise in the development of commercial activities to further improve passenger satisfaction and experience”. (Quote from standard.co.uk)


The Evening Standard (https://standard.co.uk)

Watch “New Islamabad Airport to Abu Dhabi” on YouTube

Islamabad International Airport is the leading international airport providing service to the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area and suburbs. After Sialkot International Airport, Islamabad International Airport is Pakistan’s second greenfield airport, and is built 20 km outside the double cities closest to Kashmir Highway and Motorway Interchange.


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The airport initiated complete functions on May 3rd 2018, substituting the obsolete Benazir Bhutto International Airport that currently constitutes part of the PAF Base Nur Khan. In terms of passenger capacity, ability of serving 15 million passengers a year in its initial stage, Islamabad International Airport is the biggest airport in Pakistan. The additional organised extentions will permit benefit to 25 million passengers yearly. The terminal comprises of 15 gates with 10 remote gates, duty-free shops, food court, a four-star hotel, and 42 immigration counters.


Furthermore, a third runway at the airport to be built, as, 2,833 acres (11.46 sq km / 4.42 sq mi) of land being obtained by Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority.

Islamabad International Airport is the initial and only airport in Pakistan competent of managing the Airbus A380, and is assumed to become a significant hub benefiting Northern Pakistan.



Youtube: https://youtu.be/358FoU_EnFg

Introduction to Travel and Tourism: Business Tourism (Topic 5)

What is Business Tourism?
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Business tourism is defined as people wanting to travel for business reasons, other than the normal day to day trips to their usual work place. The business trip may incorporate flying to a different country for a conference, or just driving to the area of meeting.

The travel and tourism industry heavily shows importance to business tourism. Business’s like budget hotel chains depend enormously on the revenue that is produced from business travels.

The definition of business tourism according to the ICCA is quoted as:

“Business tourism is the provision of facilities and services to the millions of delegates who annually attend meetings, congresses, exhibitions, business events, incentive travel and corporate hospitality”.

However, it is stated that not one frequently used definition exists in the meetings industry, as there are numerous terms. http://www.iccaworld.org

According to (Unit-1 An introduction to Travel and Tourism), business tourism is not just related to business. People may desire to take the chance to visit important attractions, in the city or location of their business trip, and make time for leisure tourism into their visit.


Unit 1- An Introduction to Travel and Tourism


A man and woman arrested at Gatwick Airport over the drone disturbance

According to London (Reuters), police arrested a man and a woman after scoundrel drone operators sabotaged London’s Gatwick Airport for three days, constantly flying onto the airfield causing significant security reaction.

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Approaching christmas the second biggest airport (Gatwick) was compelled to shut down the runway, has returned to its services on Saturday.

Late on Friday, a man aged 47 and a woman aged 54, from the neighbouring area were arrested by the police. On suspicion of causing disturbance to civil aviation operations, they stayed in custody on Saturday.

A recovery from the huge problems of Icelandics volcanic ash cloud in 2010, is still ongoing, and warned passengers are expected to face delays and cancellations.

In a statement, Superintendent James Collis requested the public, passengers and extensive community to be observant surrounding Gatwick. He quoted:

“Our investigations are still on-going, and our activities at the airport continue to build resilience to detect and mitigate further incursions from drones, by deploying a range of tactics”.

The travel disturbance before christmas started on Wednesday evening forcing Gatwick to cancel all flights, after noticing little drones around the airfield. The drones came back every time the airport attempted to reopen the runway, on Thursday.

The Army positioned unknown military technology to protect the area, reassuring the airport that it was safe to fly. The authorities conclusively regained power over the airfield.

The airport stated, safety is Gatwick’s highest priority, and are working towards getting the passengers to their ultimate destinations on time for christmas. Gatwick is thankful to passengers for there ongoing patience.

Many travelers slept on the airport floor in order to find alternative ways to christmas family gatherings and holidays. The drones created distress to the passengers.

The financial impact it will have on the largest airlines operating at Gatwick (easyJet, British Airways and Norwegian), is too soon to determine.

Airports across the globe are suffering with the dangers of unmanned aerial vehicles. Between the years 2015 and 2017, Britain encountered triple the number of nearby misses between drones and aircrafts, with a record of 92 incidents last year.

Source: Reuters.com