Self-Packaged Holidays

Although package holidays are quite popular, alot of people today do not purchase them from a travel agent or tour operator, but rather make their own plans. This is named as self-packaging. It refers to the procedure of booking a holiday by purchasing flights and accommodation as singular products, and making a package in the manner a tour operator would.

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Individual items can be purchased through a travel agent, but these are highly made online. This procedure is called independent travel that requires passengers to make direct bookings with the airlines and accommodation suppliers. However, this does not indicate people are travelling independently.

It has been stated that, the growing number of independent holidays is based on the following reasons:

  • Travellers may have previously visited the countries, and now feel more confident;
  • Travellers don’t feel the items provided by travel agents met their exact needs, or may have experienced something negative about package holidays in the past;
  • Tourists are happy to arrange a journey based on what they specifically want to do, see and visit, rather buy a holiday that is not according to their requirements;
  • People who have properties abroad or visit relatives and friends only need to book flights, as other parts of the journey have been organised;
  • Travellers can obtain information on destinations they want to visit through websites and guide books. There is a large variety of guide books available. Reports and advice on accommodation and other items are more widespread online;
  • Lastly, the internet has most importantly made it feasible to book reservations online, instead of being obligated to use services of the tour operator. It also provides independent tourists information they need and ways to book and pay for the accommodation and flights online.


Unit-1 Introduction to Travel and Tourism

‘Private Jet’ experience is also open to RyanAir passengers at Manchester Airport

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Manchester Airport has promised – “Buy RyanAir, fly private”, as it disclosed proposals for an exclusive terminal.

The third busiest airport of Britain, Manchester Airport is organising an experiment named PremiAir. Passengers shall be able to circumvent hectic public zones of the existing terminals.

Passengers will be able to park in a safe area, check-in their baggage, stay in a private lounge and get through a committed security channel.

Just before departure passengers will be driven direct to their plane in a personnal car transfer.

Premium passengers travelling on long-haul airlines such as, Cathay Pacific, Emirates and Singapore Airlines can benefit from this service. However, short-haul airlines such as RyanAir to Dublin and easyJet to Alicante can also use it.
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Inbound passengers are also welcome, who shall be greeted at the airport steps by a private car and taken to the PremiAir service for quick-track passport processing. They shall then wait in the lounge until their baggage is retrieved and fetched to them.

The new service will be situated next to the Runway Visitor Park, away from the existing terminals. The expected opening is in “mid-2019”, just in time for the peak summer period.

The less mobile and wealthy passengers may be interested in this service. The airport asserts: “The total walking distance from arriving at the terminal to the aircraft door will be under 20 metres.”

Chief executive, Andrew Harrison, airport facilities for Manchester Airports Group, stated: “We hope the services it will offer will appeal to a wide range of passengers, whether they are travelling for business, want to mark a special occasion or just want to add something different to their experience.”

He also added, that it could be extended to the group’s other airlines, East Midland and Stansted.

Director of operations Ross Powell, for the designer, Jacobs, stated: “We have worked hard to create a simple yet elegant design, utilising natural materials, full height glass and visual connection to the airfield to offer the guest a warm, relaxing and personalised environment.” (

Manchester Airport states: “No other major airport in the UK offers an accessible private terminal option for passengers on a ‘pay as you use’ basis.

“Such facilities are often restricted to business class and first class passengers or certain airlines, typically at significant additional cost.” (

However, Heathrow Airport has had a VIP facility situated at Windsor Suite, for several years.

Only business and first class passengers are allowed to use “Heathrow VIP”, costing £3,300 for a maximum of three people.

Potential clients were told by the airport that: “Paparazzi are not allowed in the secure area of our suites and photography of any kind is not allowed at Heathrow without a permit.” However it cautions: “We cannot guarantee long distance photographs will not be taken”. (


Seven senior PAF officers are appointed by PIA ‘to face targets’

According to Tribune an announcement was made on Wednesday that Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) will be posting seven experienced officers of Pakistan Army Force (PAF) at distinct levels for the national flag carrier.

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Four officers are appointed to PIA CEO Air Marshal Arshad Malik, stated Mashood Tajwar a spokesman of PIA.

He also added, three remaining officers will be working with PIA on different positions.

From air marshal posts to flight lieutenant officers shall be appointed.

Stated by sources, the targets set by the government will be met by this movement in order to cut the losses suffered by PIA.

Members also stated, the decision made was to guide the extremely out of money airline into right way.

The CEO of PIA will originally perform duties as acting head, and included are other officers such as Air Vice Marshal Subhan Nazir Syed, Air Vice Marshal Noor Abbas and Air Commodore Khalidur Rehman.

The appointed officers will serve between one and three years, and supervise procession engineering, chief executive secretariat and information technology.

Furthermore, in order to better the airline’s performance, duties of budgeting, food services, PAC projects, finance and the HR department have also been given to the officers.


Package Holidays (Part 3)

Disadvantages of Package Holidays

When the initial package holidays were introduced 50 years ago, majority of standard people had not travelled to foreign destinations, but rather spent their holidays within the United Kingdom, where good weather was not guaranteed. Package holidays offered a genuine substitute to the habitual British seaside vacation.

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Since situations have altered during the years, several disadvantages have been recognised such as the following:
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  1. Package holiday – mass market destinations grew to connect with negative influence of tourism, such as bad behaviour and crime.
  2. People are not willing to lie in the sun for long periods of time, since the growing awareness of ‘dangers of skin cancer’.
  3. Majority of people want to break free from the crowds of busy beaches, where they don’t feel comfortable sitting around.
  4. In order to fill an aircraft, the tour operators offer only restricted option of flights and departure times.
  5. People became confused about the prices quoted in brochures, since tour operators started charging extras.
  6. On certain occasions, people were disappointed with the standard of food and accommodation offered.
  7. Many people became self-assured travellers and were not keen on being ‘organised’ by the convenience of tour operator’s schedules.


Unit – 1 An Introduction to Travel & Tourism

Package Holidays (Part 2)

Advantages of Package Holidays

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1. Usually the package price is much cheaper than a traveller would pay for an individual ‘product’.

2. The purchaser of package would know the cost of holiday when paying for it as one ‘item’.

3. The travel agent or tour operators take majority of responsibility  of bookings and organisation.

4. Details of resort and hotel people are visiting can be seen on brochures published or online accounts and through today’s virtual tours.

5. To those people needing help and advice, a ‘rep’ is available most of the time on resort.

6. When people know majority of travellers staying at the hotel are from the UK, it builds their confidence to travel in those countries.

7. As part of the package, entertainment and children’s activities are supplied by the hotel. Package holidays are mostly linked with the term mass tourism. Tourists travelling in large volumes visiting the same destination is termed as ‘mass tourism’.

8. Mass tourism places are normally situated on coasts, with many visitors searching for ‘sun, sand and sea’ holiday.

9. Majority of mass tourism destinations produced as centres of package holidays, with high number of people arriving on chartered aircraft and stopping in pre-booked hotel accommodation.

10. Private-sector travel agents usually arrange holidays to mass tourism destinations, with only a few people visiting independently.

11. During the summer months majority of mass tourism destinations have a high or peak season.

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Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Handmade Baby knitwear! keep your cuties warm in the winter🧤🧦

Handknitted Grey booties by Raz&Nabz Baby Knitwear

It’s important to maintain the little feet and hands of our bundle of joys during winter.

Handmade hats, booties, mittens etc, can be found at reasonable prices from the website below:
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All products are handknitted with soft washable acrylic wool.

Premature baby or dolls outfit, hat, cardigan and booties

All products are handmade. Full details can be found on the website:

Ever wondered why shepherd’s pie is called “Shepherd’s Pie”?

As I was preparing shepherd’s pie for an evening meal, my mind began to wonder, why is shepherd’s pie called “shepherd’s pie”?

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According to Wikipedia, shepherd’s pie is a meat pie, with a crust or topping of mashed potato. I used chicken mince for my recipe, and not the beef mince.
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Cooked chicken mince with jalapenos

It narrates in Wikipedia, the dish was originated in United Kingdom and Ireland. The main ingredients of the recipe are mashed potato crust and meat filling.

Mozzarella cheese is layered top of the cooked chicken mince.

Grated cheese layered on top of filling

Wikipedia also states, the recipe has many alterations, however, defined ingredients are minced red meat, (usually, the lamb is used for ‘cottage pie’, and beef for ‘shepherds pie), cooked in gravy or sauce with onions and occasionally with vegetables, then topped with mashed potato and finally baked. Some use grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.

Mashed potato ready to be layered on top of mince and cheese

I prepared the mashed potato, adding a hint of salt and black pepper for extra taste.

The cook books of earlier times, as stated in Wikipedia described the recipe as a method of utilizing leftover cooked meat of any type, with the sides and bottom of dish covered with mashed potato, aswell as the top.

Mashed potato layered on top of cooked mince and cheese

Whilst spreading the mashed potato oil from the mince mixed into it. At the time, it looked stained and quite unpleasant. However, surprisingly after the shepherd’s pie was cooked, I was overwhelmed by golden and crispy effect.

Baked shepherd’s pie ready to be eaten

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Shepherd’s pie served with coleslaw, beans and salad


Memorable PICS of my vacation to PAKISTAN! A visit to Rohtas Fort….

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View of the nearby mosques from 2nd level terrace of Rohatas Fort.

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Mesmerising view of defensive walls from the bastion at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up view of thick defensive walls from the bastion of Rohtas Fort.

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View from 3rd level terrace each attached by the staircase at Rohtas Fort. The abandoned mosque is situated in middle of grass field.

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Another outstanding view of the defensive walls at Rohtas Fort, edging with scenic hills.

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The Haveli and remaining mansion of Man Singh at Rohtas Fort.

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Close up of Man Singh’s remaining mansion at Rohtas Fort. A rickshaw can be seen parked near the staircase. Tourists visit only room left of the remaining mansion.

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The 16th century coins of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, at Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre, Rohtas Fort museum.

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The shields of (British period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords and helmet of (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Swords of the (British Period) at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statues of Emperor Sher Sha Suri with his guards at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Statue of the wife (seated) of Sher Sha Suri at Rohtas Fort museum.

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Sohail Akbar Khan Visitors Information Centre/Museum Rohtas Fort.

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View of the Akbar Khan visitors Information Centre/ museum from 1st level terrace of Rohtas Fort.

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Sher Shah Suri constructed Rohtas Fort to block Emperor Humayun’s return from India after defeating him in the battle of Kanouj. (Wikipedia)

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Viewing the 3 levels of terrace each attached by a staircase. The outer walls of bastion, give a lighter shade through the reflection of sun.

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Yet another stunning view of Rohtas Fort, from above the grassfields and below the shining sun. The fresh breeze and clear skies, with a hint of small clouds overlooking the hills far away.

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The rays of shining sun above the grassfield and bastion fortifying the thick walls at Rohtas Fort.



Passengers report extreme fear after ‘loud bang’ on rear of Etihad Airways from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi

A terrified passenger described the ordeal to Manchester Evening: “We were going into the air and i thought ‘this is it”.

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Following the incident on Monday night, passengers criticised Etihad Airways for insufficient interaction.

The flight from Manchester Airport to Abu Dhabi was compelled to return back, after a ‘loud bang’ at rear of the plane terrified passengers, and cabin being engulfed with smoke.

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Due to technical fault, Etihad Airways Flight EY22, returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off.

Passengers stated the “loud bang” was heard just before take-off, from the back of the plane.

The plane was in air for approximately 30 minutes, engulfing in smoke before the pilot returned back to Manchester Airport.

The ‘cabin pressurization system’ had a technical fault, according to Etihad Airways spokesperson.

On Tuesday morning passengers were placed on a rescheduled flight, after staying the night in a hotel.

Few passengers criticised Etihad bosses for the “shortness of communication” after the incident.

A passenger travelling to meet his friends in Thailand, Gary McVey, 47, stated: “The plane was on the runway and then there was an explosion”.

He continued: “We were stuck in air for 25 to 30 minutes. It was quite a heavy landing. We were kept on the runway for about an hour”.

Gary who is from Cheshire, stated further: “People were screaming for the plane to stop. Then when we were going into the air, I thought ‘well here we go, this is it’.

He continued: “There is a woman with a five month old baby, she has not been offered any assistance formula or water”. (

Another passenger, Priyanka Mohanan, 33, from Macclesfield, stated: “As soon as the flight took off, there was a bang sound. Passengers started shouting ‘stop the flight’. I looked back and there was alot of smoke.

“By that time, we had already taken off into the air. There were no casualties or anything, but there was alot of smoke.

“As soon as we landed the firebrigade was there.

“I am visiting family in Mumbai, I was supposed to attend a wedding and have missed one day already”. (

Etihad Airways’s spokesperson stated: “Etihad Airways confirms that flight EY22, Manchester to Abu Dhabi on 14 January returned to Manchester Airport shortly after take-off, due to a technical issue associated with the cabin pressurization system.

“The aircraft landed safely and passengers disembarked and were offered hotel accommodation including meals. Guests were updated throughout the disruption and were re-booked onto alternative flights on January 15.

“We regret any inconvenience caused. The safety of our guests and crew is always our number one priority”. (


Where does Pilau rice originate from?

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According to Wikipedia, pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, and the technique of cooking it, to some extent is of West Asian origin and partially South Asian. The rice is cooked in stock, with spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat and dried fruit. Some ingredients can be mixed after cooking, if need to maintain single grains seperate from clumping.

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Pilaf or pilau is a main course dish, originated from West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Balkans, East Africa and the Caribean. The rice is served hot, and its main ingredients are: rice, spices, meat, vegetables and dried fruits.

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It mentions in Wikipedia that the ancient Hindu text Mahabharata, from the Indian Subcontinent states, rice and meat are cooked together, and “pollao” or “pulao” is a word referring to the dish in ancient Sanskrit works, for example the Yajnavalkya Smrti.

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Alexandra the Great was served pilaf at the royal banquet, after his capture of Sogdian capital of Marakanda, now known as the modern Samarkand.

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The tenth-century Persian scholar Avicena (ibn Sina), discovered the receipe of pilaf, and devoted a chapter on how to make various pilafs, in his books of medical sciences. He also gave explanations on the benefits and downsides of each ingredient used in preparing the dishes. It also states in Wikipedia, Persians believe Ibn Sina is the “father” of current pilaf.

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In the Middle East and Transcaucasia pilau became quality food over the years with alterations and changes made by the Persians, Turks, Arabs and Armenians. Bukharan and Persian Jews introduced it to Isreal.

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Throughout the time of Soviet Union, the Central Asian types of the dish mushroomed throughout all Soviet republics, that it grew part of the popular Soviet Cuisine.

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Pilot discloses when to worry about plane turbulence!

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For many passengers flights and how the planes function is an enigma, and having to put trust in the pilots capacity. Fliers are frequently worried about turbulence. It can differ from mild interruption to being violently shook to your seat. It is prompted by divergent masses of air striking at inconsistent speeds and courses. However, how concerned should the passengers be? Does it actually signify terrible news at any one point?

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“Turbulence” as a matter of fact should certainly not worry the passengers, disclosed the pilot to Express.

The pilot quoted: “In all honesty, passengers should never worry about turbulence”. (

“The aircraft is designed to take the stress and strain of turbulence. For example, it’s like designing a car with good enough suspension to drive over a rough surface road with potholes”. (

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Speaking in small terms, pilots are not concerned about turbulence – sidestepping it for benefit and ease rather than safety.

Pilots can predict where turbulence is and steer free from it, in the best conditions.

The pilot also stated, “we use met data and forecasts for jet streams to avoid potential areas”. (

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Patrick Smith the airline pilot, described in his book “Cockpit Confidential”: “A plane cannot be flipped upside down, thrown into a tailspin or otherwise flung from the sky by even the mightiest gust or air pocket”.

“Conditions might be annoying and uncomfortable, but the plane is not going to crash”. He added. (

Turbulence is ranked on a range of seriousness: light, moderate, severe and extreme.

It is stated, extreme is infrequent but yet not hazardous, however the plane would later be investigated by the maintenance workers.

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Each year, worldwide, approximately one hundred people, half of them flight crew, are injured by turbulence that requires medical attention. The most frequent injuries are; head, neck, ankle and shoulder.

The majority of injuries are occurred when passengers are not wearing seat belts during a turbulence, causing them to fall out or be thrown about. It is important to follow the orders of the crew and wear a seatbelt during turbulence.

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Smith stated: “If you want to limit the effects of turbulence the smoothest place to sit is over the wings, as it’s “nearest to the plane’s centre of lift and gravity”. He also said: “Steer clear of the rows of seats at the back closest to the tail as “the knocking and swaying is more pronounced”. 


“Global Sale” Etihad adds more European Countries. Business Class fares before Amex Discount from €1849

According to Points to be Made, a few days ago Etihad initiated their “Global Sale in the UK, Ireland, Germany and Australia”. There are more countries nearby Continental Europe that have introduced their separate operations, from 12 January 2019.

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The departure places now comprise of:

  • The Netherlands: Amsterdam
  • Spain: Madrid, Barcelona
  • Italy: Milan, Rome
  • France: Paris
  • Switzerland: Geneva, Zurich

The above deals can be found on below website, ending 25 January 2019.…

From the obtainable fares Spain happens to have the cheapest from €1849 (before discount) from Madrid/Barcelona to Kuala Lumpar, proceeded closely by Italy and The Netherlands.

If you pay by American Express a discount of 10% applies. You can activate the offer from the link below.


To activate this discount, you must follow the instructions on how the discount works from the link below:

The discount fare applies to base fare (non-tax component) and taxes of about €430 on Spanish fares, with an expected discount of €140, resulting to an overall payment of €1710 per person. Italy has the lowest taxes in the EU with a potential of high savings, however, it balances off moderately by elevated base fares.



Data fed into GDS through “aggregator services”

The following are aggregator services:

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ATPCO (Airline Tariff Publishing Company) – it maintains a vast fares database for over 500 airlines. Data is updated several times a day and fed into the GDS’s and other travel distribution channels.

OAG (Official Airline Guide) – is a travel data service provider, which publishes electronic data-base daily, and with flight schedules of over 1,000 airlines.

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INNOVATA – Innovata is a flight schedules aggregator and data service provider. It works with IATA and maintains a schedules database for about 900 airlines.


Sabre Ticketing course by Viasinc

Introduction to Sabre GDS (Global Distribution System)

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What is a GDS?

A GDS (Global Distribution System) is a worldwide distribution network, giving travel agents the ability to book more or less any travel items throughout the world. Sabre is a GDS, used by travel agents to research travel options, check prices and book reservations for every types of travel services, from airline flights, rental cars, to hotel rooms.

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  1. Sabre is amongst the popular GDS’s used around the world. Computer’s, IT and telecom play an important role in the travel industry. Independent travel companies use complex Computerised Reservation Systems (CRS), to control their inventory with telecom connecting their systems to different computers throughout the globe.
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A GDS is comparable to a CRS, but used mainly for sales and issuing. It keeps statistics for thousands of different travel suppliers permitting travel experts to compare prices and services amongst sellers.

Reservations made by Sabre GDS, get transmitted to and kept in the travel agent’s computer system CRS.

For instance, when GDS is used to book a flight on British Airways, the reservation’s data is sent to airline’s private CRS. In few cases, the airline’s private CRS is GDS’s Sub-system, but the information is stored separately.

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The travel agent is allowed to work on and modify a booking, through the local copy of reservation kept in Sabre.

The airline’s and Sabre copy of the booking are linked, allowing each other to be notified of any changes being made, such as cancelling a flight or confirming a special request.

Amongst the strengths of a GDS, is it contains majority of travel-related data. Some of this data comes from the travel company’s own computer system CRS.

The GDS receives other data through aggregator services, such as ATPCO, OAG and INNOVATA. This shall be explained in the next blog.


Sabre Ticketing, online course by Viasinc.

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Cabin crew of Pakistan International Airlines must lose weight!

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According to Independent, cabin crew of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) have been informed to lose weight, or resist being grounded.

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From 31 January any cabin crew of PIA who weighs more than 30lbs (2st 2lbs) beyond the weight limit shall be prohibited from flying. A memo was distributed to approximately 1,800 employees.

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According to CNN stated in Independent, the excess weight limit will be reduced to 5lbs a month.

The memo expressed:

“Any crew found above 30lbs from the desired weight after 31 January 2019 will be grounded and referred to Air Crew Medical Centre for medical evaluation and treatment until weight is reduced up to desired standard/BMI.” (

Diagrams have been distributed by the airline, commanding acceptable crew weight based on height. For instance, females with a height of 5ft 7in are given a weight span of 133-147lbs (9st 7lbs-10st).

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Crew that are currently on “weight test” will require reporting to a monthly “grooming cell” before they are given permission to fly.

According to PIA spokesperson, 5 per cent of the staff will be affected by the new rules.

The CNN were told that, “nobody would like to have scruffy crew on the aircraft”, adding, that the crackdown was a “regular, routine matter” ensuring crew are “slim, smart and fit”.

It’s been over a year of receiving complaints about “obese” flight crew, the airline claimed. PIA also stated, reducing the weight is about both appearance and health of staff.

Threatened job losses of flight attendants not meeting the standard targets of dictated weight, is not occurring the first time, stated the airline. Air India, grounded approximately 130 of its “mainly women” cabin crew, in 2015, due to being “overweight”.

Pakistan International Airlines stated the resolution was based on safety matters and government laws, whilst the critics marked the act “ridiculous”.

Aviation industry consultant Mark Martin at the time said: as quoted in (

This move to impose a certain BMI, ignoring experience and other performance parameters, is immature, misogynistic and shockingly sexiest”. He also added: “We seem to have lost the plot on what is needed from flight attendants”.

An airline official said: as quoted in (

People who are fitter can respond quicker and more efficiently in case of any untoward situation”.


People will be charged by Customs for taking an additional mobile phone to Pakistan

According to Samaa the government of Pakistan, is charging a remarkably soar duty on mobile phones brought in to Pakistan.

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This applies to everyone from profit-oriented importers to passengers travelling to Pakistan. All expatriates coming to Pakistan, or a Pakistani returning from an official trip abroad must pay the duty if carrying extra mobile phones.

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Tax will not be payable by people carrying only one smartphone. However, people holding extra mobile phones would have to pay tax on them. Furthermore, it is not permissable to carry more than five headsets a year.

The structure of duty/tax is complicated, as stated in Samaa. However, some calculations have been done as following: If an additional mobile phone is valued at RS40,000, then a tax and other duties of RS16,100 or 40% would have to be paid, leading to an overall cost to RS56,100. Depending on the price of the handset, duty and tax will vary. The below diagram taken from ( shows how much to pay for the smartphone:

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Diagram from

Officials stated, duties will apply to both smartphones, new (packed) or used (unpacked) with an IMEI or SIM function. However, currently the government is allowing only used phones and new (packed) phones – in case of a second phone – is being charged with new Customs duty. Duties have already been confirmed by the government for used phones, and legislation is being made in regards to this.

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Critics have stated, both consumers and traders will be upset by the soaring duties on imports of handsets. With these higher duties, devices will become more expensive and “out of reach for the marginalised parts, being deprived from the advantages of what internet offers”. They also stated, it will slow down internet penetration and the expansion of internet-based economy.

To stop the smuggling of mobile phones, which cost the exchequer millions in tax evasion, it is neccessary to take this step, stated the government.

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The government is working to simplify the complicated old tax framework, a Customs Official stated. The aim is to initially halt smuggling, since 40% of the imports are smuggled items, he (annonymous) clarified. Furthermore, according to Samaa, he also stated: “Once, we have done away with it and simplified the tax structure, the goverment will certainly consider reducing taxes, especially on low-end phones.” (



According to a survey, Ryanair was called the worst short-haul airline for 6 consecutive years

The Evening Standard stated Dublin based carrier was given the lowest ranking possible for boarding, cabin surrounding, seat comfort and refreshments, shown in a survey by the consumer group Which?.

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The overall customer result was just 40% due to this.

More than 70% of people stated they would never travel on Ryanair.

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A record of 12,459 flying experiences from 7,901 of its members showed in Which?.

The Civil Aviation Authority started enforcement movement against Ryanair in December, under the decision of not paying compensation for flight disturbance occurring from industrial action by its crew in summer 2018.

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Last year the airline also experienced disapproval of altering the hand luggage policy twice, with consequences in charges for travellers flying with little wheelie suitcases.

A passenger stated to Which?, there are numerous rules and is afraid of coming across concealed charges.

Ryanair made £1.75 billion last year from additional costs, such as luggage fees, assigned seating and priority boarding, emphasized the consumer group.

Other airlines that ranked at the lowest for short-haul flights were “Thomas Cook Airlines (52%), Whizz Air (54%), Vueling Airlines (54%) and British Airways (56%)”.

Centre of the ranking was easyJet at 63%.

The airlines achieving the highest position for short-haul travel, were Aurigny (81%), Swiss Airlines (80%) and Jet2 (75%).

The “one vital factor for UK customers is the cost of fares” which the research did not consider, stated a spokeswoman of Ryanair and explained it as “completely unrepresentative” in comparison to 141 million travellers yearly.

The spokeswoman also stated the airline’s standard fare of £35 is “a fraction of the costly fares charged by Which?’s “suggested” airlines”.


The Which? Travel magazine’s editor, Rory Boland said, if you don’t desire to be seated with family and children or nor take the smallest cabin bag on-board, then airfares seem a lot cheaper.

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He also stated, with Ryanair a calculator is required to figure out what the final bill would be.

Furthermore, he said, hundreds of thousands of holidays were destroyed due to cancelling flights in the last two years, and defying the rules on compensation too”.

Finally, the editor stated: “The results of our survey show passengers are fed up. They should switch to one of their rivals, who prove budget prices don’t have to mean budget services”. (


Evening Standard (www.standard

Gatwick and Heathrow to buy Anti-drone equipement

Following the disturbance at Sussex airport prior to christmas, Gatwick and Heathrow will pay millions of pounds on anti-drone technology.

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Last month at Gatwick the RAF placed equipment on a roof, that identifies and blocks communications between a drone and its operator.

Due to drone sightings in December, over 1,000 flights were cancelled in a span of 3 days.

Gatwick spent a total of £5 million to prohibit later assaults, whilst Heathrow confirmed to also purchase the systems.

Between 19th and 21st December, more than 140,000 traveller’s were disturbed during the 36 hour havoc.

The government brought in the military and was only stood down on Wednesday 2nd January.

The personnel of Royal Air Force Regiment were associated in the deployment, said the Ministry of Defence (MoD).

It was reported last year, that MoD requested the Drone Dome system, which is manufactured by Rafeal an Israeli company.

The system has a scope of several miles and consumes four radars to provide 360-degrees detection to recognise and trail drones.

It is assumed MoD is yet waiting to obtain the system, because Gatwick used substituted technology.

It is stated that Gatwick and Heathrow have not revealed the equipment they intend to operate in future.

After the disturbance Gatwick invested in new anti-drone defences, confirmed a spokeswoman.

At Heathrow, a spokesman stated:

“The safety of our passengers and colleagues remains our top priority.

Working closely with relevant authorities including the Met Police, we are constantly looking at the best technologies that help remove the threat of drones.” (BBC News)

Investigation of the disturbance is still ongoing by Sussex Police, and stated it occurred by “many occasions of illegal drone activity”.

The force stated it had “appropriate viewing” from 115 witnesses – 93 of them explained as “believable” – including police officers, a pilot and airport staff.

According to Civil Aviation Authority, rules for flying recreational drones in the UK are:

  1. Drone must be in line of sight at all times
  2. Not within 50m of people, vehicles or buildings
  3. No higher than 120m (400ft)


Pictures are only for illustration purposes.

Package Holidays

Package Holidays


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A holiday sold for an individual price that consists of travel, accommodation and transfer services, is defined as a package holiday. In the United Kingdom travel and tourism industry, package holiday is one of the most important products. It has been about 50 years since they started offering package holidays, and have grown to be tremendously popular.

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A traveller pays a single price for the major three parts of their holiday (travel, accommodations and transfer). The flight is covered in the package, and if it’s an outbound holiday, it will also include transfer from the airport to the hotel, and cost of accommodations. Food being obtainable depends whether the passenger is self-catering or not. Certain activities while on holiday, like small trips and visits to attractions must be paid at the airport, by person booking the package.

Before the existence of internet, it was complicated for normal people to make reservations with hotels in different countries. It was also difficult to make other arrangements.

A holiday offer with everything included was extremely appealing, particularly to a place with guaranteed warm weather.

A tour operator puts together package holidays, sold to the public by travel agents. The travel representatives promote the holidays issued by tour operators in brochures, for the public to select their desired holiday.

Although, the ‘established’ method of selling package holidays still occurs, majority of people are now using the internet to purchase their holiday.

Currently, tour operators sell their products straight to the public.

Every package holidays are not only sold to coastal destinations, rather they can be purchased for city breaks, winter sports holidays and many other types. The valued feature is that the holiday has been ‘packaged’ or put together by the tour operator, agreeing to buy seats on an aircraft or beds in a hotel. Traveller’s buying single products are more expensive, in comparison to package price which is often cheaper.


Unit-1 An Introduction to Travel and Tourism